ARTICLES

Chronicle Articles

Read the latest articles from our experienced developers to learn how you can write simpler and faster Java applications.

ARTICLE OF THE MONTH

Java is Very Fast, If You Don’t Create Many Objects

This article looks at a benchmark passing events over TCP/IP at 4 billion events per minute using the net.openhft.chronicle.wire.channel package in Chronicle Wire and why we aim to avoid object allocations. 

Does not allocating really make such a difference? 

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CHRONICLE FIX

Much More Than a Quick Fix

Chronicle FIX has been built from the ground up by low-latency experts to be as fast as possible and leverages many ingenious techniques and patterns, some of which we believe are unique in the industry. 

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CHRONICLE QUEUE ENTERPRISE

Reducing Tail Latencies with Chronicle Queue Enterprise

Persistent queue solutions are frequently used when designing low-latency applications. However high sustained message rates, or bursty workloads, can lead to delays caused by the OS or hardware which are challenging, but not impossible, to mitigate.

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Large Price Comparison

55 Dedicated Cloud Compute Optimised Solutions

We have compared compute-optimised instances from 55 vendors, and the cost per virtual CPU differs significantly between different products. 

  • All
  • Chronicle FIX
  • Chronicle Queue
  • Chronicle Services
  • Cloud
  • Event Driven
  • Low-Latency
  • Throughput

Unique Identifiers Based on Timestamps in Distributed Applications

At Chronicle we build applications that must process very high numbers of events with minimum latency. Generating unique IDs for these events using the traditional method of UUIDs introduces an…

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Java is Very Fast, If You Don’t Create Many Objects

This article looks at a benchmark passing events over TCP/IP at 4 billion events per minute using the net.openhft.chronicle.wire.channel package in Chronicle Wire and why we aim to avoid object…

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Monitoring Event Loops for Blockages

Chronicle’s open source Chronicle Threads library has a little known feature which is one of the first tools I get from my bag if a client reports that they are…

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Monitoring Chronicle Services

Chronicle Services is a framework for building Event-driven microservices. Microservices built with Chronicle Services are efficient, easy to build, test, and maintain. Equally important they provide exceptional high-throughput and low…

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Using Pausers in Event Loops

Typically in low-latency development, a trade-off must be made between minimising latency and avoiding excessive CPU utilisation. This article explores how Chronicle’s Pausers can be used to automatically apply a…

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Tuning Java Applications for Low Latency on Linux

Introduction I have lost count of the number of times I have been told that Java is not a suitable language in which to develop applications where performance is a…

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The Unix Philosophy for Low Latency

Unix has been around for more than 50 years, and the original design principles must be good enough for it (and its derivative, Linux) to be the most widely used…

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Comparing Approaches to Durability in Low Latency Messaging Queues

A significant feature of Chronicle Queue Enterprise is support for TCP replication across multiple servers to ensure high availability of application infrastructure. I have generally held the view that replicating…

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Automatically Creating Microservices Architecture Diagrams

In application development, microservices is an architectural style where larger applications are structured as a collection of smaller, independent, yet interconnected services. While this allows for highly maintainable and testable…

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Chronicle FIX: Much More Than a Quick Fix

Many of our customers have upgraded from QuickFIX/J to Chronicle FIX and this article provides some background as to why. Introduction QuickFIX/J is free, accessible, supports the FIX standard and…

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Chronicle FIX: Designed Not To Skip A Message Even If Your Data Centre Fails

A high level of availability of IT services is crucial to prevent disruptions of service that can lead to financial losses, business opportunity losses, data loss, and reputational damage. A…

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Chronicle Wire: Object Marshalling

At Chronicle, we know that efficient code doesn’t just run faster; if it’s using less compute-resource, it may also be cheaper to run. In particular, distributed cloud applications can benefit…

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How to Automatically Generate GitHub Release Notes From Resolved Issues

GitHub Issues are convenient since they come bundled with a GitHub repository. Many companies are exploring this tool as an alternative to full-featured issue tracker such as Atlassian JIRA. Complex…

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Event-Driven Order Processing Program

Following the Hello World example of a simple, independently deployable real-time Event-Driven Microservice, this article looks at a more realistic example of an Order Processor with a New Order Single…

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Efficient Memory Mapping for Terabyte Sparse Files in Java

On Linux, you can create sparse files, where only the pages (of 4 KiB) that are touched utilise either memory or disk space. This allows you to memory map large…

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Exhaustive JUnit5 Testing with Combinations, Permutations and Products

Unit testing constitutes an integral part of the process of providing high-quality software. But, how can one write tests covering all variants of several operations? Read this article and learn…

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Event Driven Hello World Program

Event-driven microservices can be straightforward to describe before they are implemented, tested and maintained. They are also highly responsive to new information in real time, with latencies in Java of…

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Is There a Best OS to Develop a Java Application on?

One subject that often evokes a lot of debate is which is the best OS to develop a Java application on. This article gives my view on the issue.  …

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How Behaviour Driven Development Works Well with Event Driven Architectures

Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) and Event Driven Architecture (EDA) work well together as they complement each other’s strengths and weaknesses. Using both can result in a shorter time to market…

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Which is the Fastest JVM?

How is a high-performance, low-latency Java application affected by the JVM version used? Every nanosecond counts for trading and other applications where messages between two different threads are exchanged in…

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Why Core-to-Core Latency Matters

Last year we had a global shortage of microchips; today, I feel there is a worldwide shortage of software developers. Like many other software companies, Chronicle Software is rapidly expanding…

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“The More You Say, the Less People Remember…

…The Fewer the Words, the Greater the Profit.” These wise words were written by François Fénelon, a writer and theologian living during the 17th century. This is an article summarising…

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How Does Kafka Perform When You Need Low Latency?

Most Kafka benchmarks appear to test high throughput but not low latency. Kafka was traditionally used for high throughput rather than latency-sensitive messaging, but it does have a low-latency configuration….

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Cloud-Native Chronicle Deployment

Traditionally, companies with low-latency requirements deployed to bare metal servers, eschewing the convenience and programmability of virtualisation and containerisation in an effort to squeeze maximum performance and minimal latency from…

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How to Reduce Cloud Cost by 99% for EDA Kafka Applications

While the cloud offers great convenience and flexibility, the operational cost for applications deployed in the cloud can sometimes be significant. This article shows a way to substantially reduce operating…

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How to Leverage Method Chaining to Add Smart Message Routing

This article explores how to use method chaining to add routing information to serialised data structures in a lightweight fashion, where the routing information can be read separately by an…

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Introducing the Multifunctional FIX Router of Chronicle FIX

A Load Balancer, FIX Version Translator, and Rule-based Drop Copy FIX (Financial Information eXchange) protocol was developed to provide a reliable and high-speed exchange of transaction information between trading parties….

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Challenges when Developing a GUI for FIX

This article explores the Challenges in developing a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Financial Information eXchange (FIX) data. FIX is both a protocol and a message format, but to create…

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Automated CI/CD of Multiple Projects Using TeamCity’s Kotlin DSL

In a previous article I described a way to organise low-latency products as multiple code bases which are bound together with a Maven Bill of Materials (BOM). Understandably, this requires…

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Why the Cool Kids Use Event Loops

A Discussion On the Benefits of Event Loops in Java. When I was working in software development back in the 1990s, nearly all the software libraries that I worked on…

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How to Develop Event-Driven Architectures

Last month, I wrote an article on Open source Chronicle Wire, that discusses how we could serialise an application’s state into different message formats. Now in this article, I’m going…

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Kafka vs Chronicle for Microservices: which is 750 times faster?

Apache Kafka is a common choice for inter-service communication. Kafka facilitates the parallel processing of messages and is a good choice for log aggregation. Kafka claims to be low latency,…

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Unusual Java: StackTrace Extends Throwable

There are things you can do in Java you rarely see, generally because there is no use for it. However, there are some unusual things in Java that could be…

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How to Get C++ Speed in Java Serialisation

Using Trivially Copyable Objects to Improve Java Serialisation Speeds For any low-latency software it is vital that the most common operations introduce minimal latency. For example, in trading software, one…

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Why the Fastest Way of Serializing a Java Field is not Serializing it at All

This article elaborates on different ways of serializing Java objects and benchmarks performance for the variants. Read this article and become aware of different ways to improve Java serialization performance….

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Reducing Tail Latencies with Chronicle Queue Enterprise

Persistent queue solutions are frequently used when designing low-latency applications. The problem is that high sustained message rates, or bursty workloads, can lead to delays caused by the OS or…

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How Object Reuse Can Reduce Latency and Improve Performance

Become familiar with the art of object reuse by reading this article and learn the pros and cons of different reuse strategies in a multi-threaded Java application. This allows you…

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Creating Terabyte Sized Queues with Low-Latency

Queues are often fundamental components in software design patterns. But, what if there are millions of messages received every second and multi-process consumers need to be able to read the…

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High-Performance Java Serialisation to Different Formats

Java serialization is a popular mechanism where you are able to serialize and deserialize complex object graphs; for example where object A can contain a reference to object B, which…

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Why a Set Can Contain Duplicate Elements

In low-latency applications, the creation of unnecessary objects is often avoided by reusing mutable objects to reduce memory pressure and thus the load on the garbage collector. This makes the…

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Low Latency Microservices, A Retrospective

I wrote an article on low latency microservices almost five years ago now. Chronicle Software has worked with a number of tier one investment banks to implement and support those systems….

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Monorepo Versus Bill of Materials: Shaping Your Project

During most of my development career, the usual code organization pattern was monolithic repository or Monorepo. There is a single large version control repository, to which all developers on the…

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